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Figuring Stockpile/Hay/Forage Requirements

By   /  September 23, 2013  /  Comments Off on Figuring Stockpile/Hay/Forage Requirements

Here’s a little calculator we put together to help you figure out how much stockpiled forage you have, or may need for the winter. If you’re not set up with a stockpile this season, you can also use it to figure out how much hay you’ll need for overwintering.

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Top Title of Grazing CalculatorI originally created this calculator to go along with the leasing pasture series from Meg Grzeskiewicz. Since we’ve gotten questions from folks on how much winter stockpile they might need, and how much their animals eat, we thought it was a good time to put it center stage on its own.

The calculator is really an Xcel spreadsheet.  You plug numbers into the yellow boxes.  The answers you’re looking for will show up in the dark green boxes. There are several different part to the calculator, depending on the questions you’re asking.

The first section (shown below) was designed to help you figure out how much forage you have during the spring/summer grazing season.  The “Total Forage Available” answer it gives you assumes that you’ll be leaving at least 50% behind to prevent overgrazing.  If you use this answer as you consider how much winter stockpile you have, note that once the grass is dormant, you can graze shorter because the plant is not actively growing.

How much forage do I have?


The next section of the calculator helps you figure out how much forage your animals eat.  The first thing you’ll notice is that it uses a measurement called “AUMs.”  This stands for Animal Unit month.  This is a measurement that is more often used in the west where government agencies lease rangeland.  One AUM is the amount of forage required for one cow/calf pair, because that was what was most common on rangelands.  All you have to do is enter the number of animals you have in each category.  You’ll get answers for how much that group eats, and then figures for daily and monthly rates for the whole herd.

How much do my livestock eat?


We included a tool to help you estimate your carrying capacity.  First you enter your rotation length.  This is the amount of time you anticipate it will take for the forage to completely recover.  (If you’re using this to figure out how long your stockpile will last, your rotation will be the amount of time before you have new spring growth.)  The calculator divides your rotation length by the total forage you have available from the first section.  You can use the chart of daily forage requirements to enter the amount of food one animal eats so that the calculator can tell you how many animals you can feed.

What is my carrying capacity?


Now, how much forage do your animals need over the winter?  Well, it depends.  In this spreadsheet we’ve given you two options based on how different people prefer to manage their animals.  Option 1 includes feeding 50% of your livestock’s Dry Matter requirements.  Some folks do this because they want to speed up spring green up.  You can use Option 2 if you don’t have stockpile and will only be feeding hay, or if you don’t feed hay with your stockpiled pasture.  For either option you’ll need to fill in the number of days you’ll feed livestock, how many of those days will be covered by stockpile, daily forage requirements, and how many animals you anticipate overwintering. (Meg G. provides a little more background on stockpile grazing in this article.)

Overwintering Forage


Keep in mind that this calculator is somewhat generic because we wanted it to work for as many people as possible.  All the numbers you get from it are estimates and you’ll have to use your experience and that of the extension specialists and Natural Resources Conservation professionals in your area if you have questions.

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About the author

Publisher, Editor and Author

Kathy worked with the Bureau of Land Management for 12 years before founding Livestock for Landscapes in 2004. Her twelve years at the agency allowed her to pursue her goal of helping communities find ways to live profitably AND sustainably in their environment. She has been researching and working with livestock as a land management tool for over a decade. When she's not helping farmers, ranchers and land managers on-site, she writes articles, and books, and edits videos to help others turn their livestock into landscape managers.

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