Can Manure Be Made Into Toilet Paper?

This article was first published in April of 2018. With everything going on, I thought it was timely. Enjoy! Alexander Bismarck was vacationing in small village on Crete when he had an "Ah Ha" moment. He was watching goats grazing summer-dry grass when he realized that what comes out in the end is partially digested plant matter - including cellulose. His next thought was that all the chewing, and the digesting with enzymes and acids in the stomach, was similar to the process factories go through to turn wood fiber into pulp for paper. So, he, asked the question: would turning poop into paper require less energy and fewer chemicals than our current process? Back at work at the University of Vienna in Austria, Bismarck, his postdoc, Andreas Mautner, and two graduate students, Nurul Ain Kamal and Kathrin Weiland, but the hypothesis to a test. They moved from goat manure, to dung from horses, cows, and eventually even elephants and found that turning poop to paper is very possible. Here's the Recipe The researchers use a two step process. First they treat the manure with a sodium hydroxide solution which partially removes the lignin and other impurities. The lignin can be used later as fertilizer or fuel. The second step, bleaching the remaining material, results in a purified cellulose that requ

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