New Vaccine May Control Cattle Ticks

This story comes to us from the USDA Agriculture Research Service's AgResearch Magazine by ARS's Sandra Avant. The economic impact of cattle fever ticks, including the southern cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, was so severe in the late 1800s that the U.S. Department of Agriculture started an eradication program in the early 1900s to eliminate the deadly disease bovine babesiosis, which is transmitted by this parasitic pest. Although cattle fever ticks were declared eradicated in the United States in 1943, today they are still common in Mexico and can hitchhike on stray livestock, white-tailed deer, and other wildlife that cross the Rio Grande River into Texas. At the Agricultural Research Service’s Tick and Biting Fly Research Unit in Kerrville, Texas, scientists are looking for ways to get rid of this pest for good. A new vaccine may help. Insect physiologist Felix D. Guerrero and his colleagues made a significant discovery while sequencing the complicated, huge cattle tick genome, which contains about 2.5 times the DNA of the human genome. Sequencing the genome allowed them to determine the exact sequence of the entire set of tick proteins. “We identified several proteins that might be good targets to exploit to try to disrupt the cattle tick’s function, and in doing so would likely kill it or at least impact its survival,” Guerr

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3 thoughts on “New Vaccine May Control Cattle Ticks

  1. I contacted Dr. Felix Guerrero, the Project Leader, for this research for more information. I’m posting his reply here in the comments for all the folks who had questions:

    Thanks for running the article and for publicizing the research that my
    lab at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Kerrville, TX is doing to give cattle
    ranchers scientifically documented and approved alternatives to chemical
    pesticides for cattle tick control. I am glad that your readership has
    concerns relating to off-target effects, such as those about the spiders
    and dung beetles. That concern shows they look at the entire ecosystem.

    I am a molecular biologist working with a team of veterinarians, animal
    scientists, entomologists, and vaccinologists to see if we can take a
    scientific discovery from my lab to the agricultural community with the
    assistance of an interested animal health industry partner. We are just
    beginning the testing of our vaccines to see if they would be an effective
    treatment for cattle ticks, so I cannot give a definitive answer yet about
    effects on spiders. I assume your reader was concerned about spiders that
    bite cattle? I am not a spider expert and so am not sure what spiders have
    a lifecycle that would expose them to blood from vaccinated cattle.

    Since this vaccine would be given to an individual bovine as an
    injection, such as existing vaccines given to prevent bacterial or viral
    infections, unless an organism bites the bovine and ingests a lot of
    blood, there should not be any effect. We do not expect there will be
    vaccine-derived material on the surface of the bovine or in the manure.
    But safety studies should take a look at such possibilities. So we do not
    foresee effects upon dung beetles or spiders. However, those safety
    studies will look for off-target effects such as you describe.

    Even if a spider bites the bovine, I doubt they ingest blood. Only blood
    feeding organisms are expected to be affected by a vaccine against cattle
    ticks. This vaccine utilizes a cattle tick aquaporin and any company that
    decides this vaccine is worth pursuing as an animal health product will
    have to work with regulatory agencies to get approval for use in cattle.

    I hope this information helps you answer the questions of your readers.
    Do not hesitate to contact me if there is any other information you think
    would be helpful to you!

  2. Sadly any tick immunization will suffer from our totally incomplete understanding of tick born infections. Ticks carry and infect hosts with multiple organisms at the same time with little if any effective testing available. Use of genetically modified vaccines have great potential value but also pose real risks for unintended effects. The drive to get a vaccine to the market overshadows the need for long term testing to be sure that side effects do not surface months or even years latter. Buyer beware. The best thing to do is to maximize the immunity of your cattle with good pastures and trace minerals and no crowding.

  3. Have there been studies into whether this vaccine will effect other arthropods or insects in addition to attached ticks? This needs to be taken into account if we are to maintain healthy ecosystems.

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